If you want my real opinion; Yes, I think people should pass a test before they have children. My practical answer is that how we decide what should be on the test and who should score the results is not as easy to determine.
So here is a possible solution: If I was President, I would give everyone a puppy for their 17th birthday. They can pick out the type of dog they want, but it must be between 8 weeks and 8 months old. No you cannot choose a cat instead, not even a Siamese that acts like a dog. Everyone is responsible for feeding, cleaning, walking, and training their puppy.
People would learn what it’s like to care for another creature. Sure they’re cute and funny, but they are demanding, messy, disobedient, disruptive… It’s just like having a kid, so maybe this would be a good evaluation experience for people who are likely to have children in the future.
Yes I would feel sorry for the puppies in this experiment as many of them would not receive the necessary treatment. But I would prefer this occurs with puppy which are then given to another person for their Birthday, or returned to the supply waiting for adoption. I hope this experiment would teach people how to evaluate when they are ready to have children, and we might avoid similar treatment children who are born unwanted or to unprepared parents. We could offer voluntary education courses for parenting after these experiences for anyone who wants to have children and wants to get prepared for that responsibility.
After each person has their puppy for a few months, I would automatically send them a regular supply of condoms, for life. And although it would be detrimental to our economy, maybe this would also help stem the population growth.